PP05: German in the context of the other languages of the Habsburg state (19th century) and the Second Austrian Republic
Project part 05 (PP05) was completed in project phase I (2016–2019). Its goal was to provide a historically founded and multilingualism-based understanding of German varieties in the Habsburg state and in Austria from after World War II to the present day. In this context, we focused on aspects such as bilingualism, multilingualism and language policies implemented in administration, in the judiciary system and in education. The project mainly worked on a quantitative basis, always taking into account sources with qualitative information in order to display a complete picture of (historical) multilingualism in Austria. The data were collected in the module MiÖ-STAT of the Information system on (historical) multilingualism in Austria (MiÖ), put in context and made accessible to other researchers and the public by the end of project phase II (2020–2024).
Based on the evaluation of existing data on languages used (e.g. census data) and their combination with official regulations, historical documents, journals and magazines, PP05 answered research questions such as the following: How multilingual was (and is) Austria, even where one might not suspect it? How does multilingualism change over time, which different geographical developments can be identified? What causes changes in multilingualism, which factors play a role, and how can one measure their influence? What impact does the historical legacy have not only on the self-awareness and perception of German speakers in Austria, but also on the political discourse concerning linguistic diversity in Austria after World War II? What lessons can be learned?